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6. SMS – Short Message Service is a text messaging service component of most telephone, World Wide Web, and mobile telephony systems. It uses standardized protocols to enable mobile phone devices to exchange short text messages. SMS, as used on modern handsets, originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers that used standardized phone protocols and these were defined in 1985 as part of the Global System for Mobile Communications series of standards. The protocols allowed users to send and receive messages of up to 160 alpha-numeric characters to, though most SMS messages are mobile-to-mobile text messages, support for the service has expanded to include other mobile technologies, such as ANSI CDMA networks and Digital AMPS. SMS is also employed in marketing, a type of direct marketing. Adding text messaging functionality to mobile devices began in the early 1980s, the first action plan of the CEPT Group GSM was approved in December 1982, requesting that, The services and facilities offered in the public switched telephone networks and public data networks. Should be available in the mobile system and this plan included the exchange of text messages either directly between mobile stations, or transmitted via message handling systems in use at that time. The SMS concept was developed in the Franco-German GSM cooperation in 1984 by Friedhelm Hillebrand, the GSM is optimized for telephony, since this was identified as its main application. In this way, unused resources in the system could be used to transport messages at minimal cost, however, it was necessary to limit the length of the messages to 128 bytes so that the messages could fit into the existing signalling formats. Based on his observations and on analysis of the typical lengths of postcard and Telex messages. SMS could be implemented in every mobile station by updating its software, hence, a large base of SMS-capable terminals and networks existed when people began to use SMS. The technical development of SMS was a multinational collaboration supporting the framework of standards bodies, through these organizations the technology was made freely available to the whole world. The first proposal which initiated the development of SMS was made by a contribution of Germany and this proposal was further elaborated in GSM subgroup WP1 Services based on a contribution from Germany. There were also discussions in the subgroup WP3 network aspects chaired by Jan Audestad. The result was approved by the main GSM group in a June 85 document which was distributed to industry, the input documents on SMS had been prepared by Friedhelm Hillebrand with contributions from Bernard Ghillebaert. The last three words transformed SMS into something more useful than the prevailing messaging paging that some in GSM might have had in mind. SMS was considered in the main GSM group as a service for the new digital cellular system. In GSM document Services and Facilities to be provided in the GSM System, the discussions on the GSM services were concluded in the recommendation GSM02.03 TeleServices supported by a GSM PLMN.
7. Thailand – Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2, Thailand is the worlds 51st-largest country and it is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy and has switched between parliamentary democracy and military junta for decades, the latest coup being in May 2014 by the National Council for Peace and Order. Its capital and most populous city is Bangkok and its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. The Thai economy is the worlds 20th largest by GDP at PPP and it became a newly industrialised country and a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy and it is considered a middle power in the region and around the world. The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens, by outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam. The word Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Syama, the names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Syama is possibly not its origin, but a learned, another theory is the name derives from Chinese, Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam, the signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut King of the Siamese, giving the name Siam official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed Siam from 1945 to 11 May 1949, after which it reverted to Thailand. According to George C?des, the word Thai means free man in the Thai language, ratcha Anachak Thai means kingdom of Thailand or kingdom of Thai. Etymologically, its components are, ratcha, -ana- -chak, the Thai National Anthem, written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as, prathet Thai. The first line of the anthem is, prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai, Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh. There is evidence of habitation in Thailand that has been dated at 40,000 years before the present. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, Thailand in its earliest days was under the rule of the Khmer Empire, which had strong Hindu roots, and the influence among Thais remains even today. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Siam from India in the time of the Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire, later Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire. The Menam Basin was originally populated by the Mons, and the location of Dvaravati in the 7th century, the History of the Yuan mentions an embassy from the kingdom of Sukhothai in 1282.
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